Dr Tinni Dutta at Asutosh College, Kolkata, is eminent Psychologist and a famous educationist. Greatly appreciated her research work in India and aboard. She has visited U.S.A, U.K, Switzerland, France, Germany, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia. She is a recipient of many awards and fellowship.
The impact of stress on physical health varies between diseases. Chronic or severe stress can lead to a variety of mental health problems-post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, insomnia and different types of psychosomatic disorder. The field of sleep disorder medicine has progressed to a great extent. Sedatives, Hypnotics and Anxiolytics are used for ameliorating these symptoms. But medicine alone cannot do much. Urgent counselling is needed in Yoga and meditations, as we find in DSM V (Diagnostic Criteria) sleep-wake disorders are intended for use by general mental health and medical clinicians.
It encompasses 10 disorders or disorder groups: insomnia disorder, hypersomnolence disorder, narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorder, circa din rhythm sleep-wake disorders, non-rapid eye movement (NREM), sleep arousal disorders, restless leg syndrome, and substance/medication-induced sleep disorder. In this article, we would limit our discussion only on Insomnia.
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Pathways between stress and disease
I. A predominant complaint of dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality, associated with one of the following symptoms:
• Difficulty initiating sleep
• Difficulty maintain sleep, characterized by frequent awakening
• Early – morning awakening with inability to return to sleep.
II. The sleep disturbance clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, educational, academic, behavioural or other important areas of functioning.
III. The sleep difficulty occurs at least 3 nights per week.
IV. The sleep difficulty is present at least for 3 months.
V. The sleep difficulty occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep.
VI. The insomnia is not better explained by and does not exclusively during the course of another sleep-related disorder.
VII. The insomnia is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance
VIII. Coexisting mental disorder and medical conditions do not adequately explain the predominant complaints of insomnia.
Different manifestations of insomnia can occur at different times of sleep period. Sleep onset insomnia involves difficulty initiating sleep at bedtimes. Sleep maintenance insomnia refers to frequent or prolonged awakenings throughout the night. Late insomnia involves early – morning awakening with an inability to return to sleep.
Insomnia is related to sleep physiological and cognitive arousal which interferes with sleep. The more an individual strives to sleep, the more frustration builds. The more impairs sleep. It is also associated with other psychological complaints like fatigue, boredom decreased energy and mood disturbances.